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Rwanda Up in Arms Over Leaked 'Genocide' Report

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Special to the NNPA from GIN –

(GIN) – Rwandan President Paul Kagama is said to be fuming over a leaked U.N. report that ties him to the massacres of Hutu men, women, children and the elderly.

The massive 600-page “mapping” report, prepared for the UN but leaked to Le Monde, a French newspaper, says that after the 1994 genocide in Rwanda, Tutsi-led Rwandan troops and their rebel allies targeted, chased, hacked, shot and burned Hutus in the Democratic Republic of Congo, from 1996 to 1997.

"The majority of the victims were children, women, elderly people and the sick, who were often undernourished and posed no threat to the attacking forces," notes the report which suggests these killings could be considered "crimes against humanity, war crimes, or even genocide."

Rwandese Minister of Justice Tharcisse Karagurama called the report “worthless.”

The report flies in the face of strong European and U.S. support for the Rwandan president and challenges the narrative that only Rwandan Tutsis were genocide victims.

Govt spokesman Ben Rutsinga attacked the investigators for “failing to consult with Rwanda even though they found time to meet with over 200 non-governmental representatives.”

But Luc Cote, the Canadian war crimes prosecutor who headed the 34-member UN probe, countered: "All this [evidence] put together, submitted to a court of law, may constitute elements from which you can infer the intent to destroy a group as such, which is genocide.”

“It is never too late for justice,” says Sipho Mthathi, Human Rights Watch director in South Africa. “It is unfortunate that the report has taken this long but we hope now it can be acted upon.”

Wanted: Black Male Teachers Across the Nation

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By ReShonda Tate Billingsley, Special to the NNPA from the Chicago Defender –

CHICAGO (NNPA) - It's a nationwide problem - the shortage of Black male teachers. Only two percent of the nation's nearly five million teachers are African American.

“That’s one in 50 teachers. Something is wrong with that picture,” says U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan. “As a country, we have a huge challenge to make sure many more of our young Black boys are successful. Our graduation rates have to go up dramatically, our dropout rates have to go down. To get there, I’m convinced we have to have more men of color teaching, being role models, being mentors and doing so not just in high school but on the elementary level.”

Duncan is leading the charge to get more Black males in the classroom – either on the elementary or secondary level. But he admits that it’s a huge challenge that may be an uphill battle.

Nowhere is that challenge more evident than in the Lone Star State.

In Texas, there are more than 333,090 public school teachers, and less than one percent are Black men. Two out of three Texas teachers in the past school year were white, and the state projects that minority students will make up around 62 percent of the student body in the 2011-12 school year, up more than 10 percent from a decade ago. In the Houston Independent School District, the country’s second largest school district, of the 12,829 teachers, only 1,043 are Black males – despite the fact that the district is 26.5 percent African American. In Fort Bend, the seventh largest district in Texas, 31.42 percent of students are Black, and there are only 265 Black male teachers. The lack of Black males in the classroom ultimately, education officials say, hurts everyone.

“The research shows that if you can match the ethnicity and race of teachers and students, teachers tend to be more effective,” said Ed Fuller, associate director of the University Council for Educational Administration at the University of Texas at Austin. “It’s important for role modeling and pushing those students to go to college. Of course, you want to make sure teachers are well-qualified and not just thrown into a classroom because of race or ethnicity.”

Why the disparity?

The national epidemic is brought on by a myriad of factors – from low salaries, to declining Black graduation rates, to changing perceptions about education. Texas school districts hire about 30,000 to 35,000 new teachers every year, but the pool of minorities interested in the profession is small, and is particularly acute in early-childhood and lower grades, and is partly pay-related.

“Teachers in elementary school typically don't make as much money as teachers in high school do,” says Reginald Weaver, president of the National Education Agency. “More than 50 percent of male teachers are at the high school level.”

In HISD, teachers with a Bachelor’s degree start at roughly $45,000 a year.

“For a man trying to support a family, that’s simply not enough,” says businessman Lewis Anderson, who left his teaching job with HISD after two years to make more money. “I would’ve loved to teach on the elementary level, but I had a family to support and as the breadwinner of the family, I needed more money. So I took a job in a high school because I could subsidize my income with coaching. Ultimately, I had to leave to find a job that paid more altogether.”

“If you started paying teachers $150,000 per year, you'd see a lot of guys going into the field,” adds Bryan Nelson, founder of MenTeach.

Other key reasons behind the male-teacher shortage, according to MenTeach, is the stereotype that teaching is “women's work,” as well as possible fears of lawsuits around accusations of sexual abuse of children.

Brian Hendrickson, a sixth-grade social studies teacher polled his students to find out how they feel their male teachers differed from their female teachers. The results: Male teachers tend to use sports analogies, such as “Standardized tests are the Super Bowl of knowledge.” They are more tolerant of chitchat and are more likely to integrate active learning methods, including competitions and games, into the curriculum. They also tend to be funnier, the informal poll suggested.

“Men tend to give more direction in their approach to sharing knowledge,” says Stephen Jones, a longtime educator and the author of Seven Secrets of How to Study. “They want to appear to be the expert.” Women, on the other hand, are more likely to collaborate with students and incorporate their ideas, Jones says. “Therefore, men who are teaching mixed classes must incorporate collaborative and direct instruction to meet the needs of all students.”

Mark Brewer believes the Civil Rights movement may have actually had an adverse effect on Black male teachers.

“About 30 years ago the education field was one of the major avenues available for those with higher education. Hence, someone would major in a field, be denied the chance to truly make a career of it, so they taught the subject to others. Since the civil rights movement when Blacks were allowed to move out of an enclave to the suburbs, most of their sons were pointed to other fields of study. The major emphasis was more money, as well as, to fields once off limits to men of color. Earlier generations may have had more emphasis on uplift of race through education, today’s generations may have more focus on financial gain, trappings, and attaining the so called “American dream’,” he said.

In some cases, others at the school ask male teachers to play disciplinarian.

“A lot of female teachers would come to me if they had a disciplinary problem -- mainly with boys -- and ask me to handle it,” says Alan Flory, a retired special education teacher with twenty-eight years of experience. “I didn't particularly appreciate it, but I did it.”

Black males also leave teaching at a higher rate than their colleagues, according to a 2003 study by the National Education Association, a national teacher's union. Half of black males leave the profession before retirement, compared with 30 percent of all teachers.

Why they stay

At KIIP Academy – Sharpstown, David Tell is one of only two African American teachers out of staff of twenty-seven. He knows the startling statistics regarding Black males in his profession and he’s not deterred.

“I was that textbook kid who my teacher saw potential and they dragged me out of the crowd. I thought about all the kids that were left behind. For me, I decided to teach and continue to find that potential in all of our children. A lot of times, just seeing someone that has a similar story, that looks like them, that shares a similar background, the kids kinda reach out,” said Tell, who is entering his ninth year as a teacher.

“I wanted to have an impact on the next generation,” says Chaz Douglas, who teaches first grade and was one of only three Black male education majors at Eastern Michigan State. “I had a Black teacher as a high school freshman. He impacted me and I said I want to have that same impact on a student and make a difference on the elementary level.”

“I was a special education teacher for two years,” says Jeffrey Campbell, who initially worked as an auditor for the first seven years after college. “I was inspired by a male friend who has just started teaching (and is still teaching) to investigate transitioning into education. It was a good fit and really equipped me to do much of the work that I do today. My biggest challenge as a teacher was the recognition of the lack of cultural sensitivity, particularly when it came to some white teacher’s inability to understand and nurture young Black male students. I taught on the east side of the Alief School District during a time when schools in that area were transitioning from predominately white schools to predominately minority schools. Much of this change was caused by many of the apartment complexes in the area being designated as Section 8 properties. Almost overnight white teachers in these schools were faced with classes filled with Black and brown faces. Those teachers, although good teachers, were not prepared to handle these new students and it was the students who suffered from it.”

Even though he left the field (only to pursue a career in ministry), Campbell remains committed to young people and says he’d like to see more Black male teachers in the classroom.

“Black male teachers are needed in schools because Black children and youth from pre-K through 12th grade need Black men in their lives as role models, guides, mentors and wisdom resources,” Campbell said.

Changing the face of the classroom

A Harvard University Kennedy School of Government study published in 2004 concluded that white and Black students did better on state tests with teachers of their own race. The findings indicated that recruiting more minority teachers could generate important gains among minority students. One of the reasons is that minority teachers better understand cultural differences and can “break down the students’ stereotypes,” according to the study.

Fuller said the state hasn’t pushed hard to get more minority college graduates into the classroom.

“It’s hard to change the makeup of our teaching force very quickly,” he said. “The state leadership hasn’t paid much attention to this problem or even thought about it for years and that’s why we are where we are. We don't stand alone in this crisis, this challenge, there are coast to coast, states, colleges, universities, school districts faced with the same challenges. We think that by placing African American men in the classroom is extremely critical because we're losing so many black males in the school district in school system. In fact, more than half of our children don't make it through high school. That's an alarming statistic.”

To attract more male teachers, heavy recruiting at the university level is necessary, says Steve Peha, president of Teaching That Makes Sense, an education-consulting company. “We won't see more male teachers if we don't see more young men pursuing teaching degrees,” he notes.

One of the more prominent recruitment programs is Call Me MISTER (Mentors Instructing Students Toward Effective Role Models), which provides tuition assistance and leadership training to male African American students pursuing education degrees. When the 150 participants in the program, which originated at South Carolina's Clemson University, finally start working, they will double the number of Black men teaching in the state's elementary schools. The program has ten participating colleges throughout the state, and two other colleges in Pennsylvania and Virginia are replicating it.

Still, according to Peha, a coordinated effort to recruit male teachers is lacking, in part because some education experts remain unconvinced about the added value male teachers bring to the classroom. “If we want more men in the classroom, we'll need to see some data about the benefits of a gender-balanced corps," he notes.

Campbell says he would like to see a grass-roots effort to get more Black men.

“I think you need recruitment programs starting in high school, similar to Future Teachers of American that specifically target Black males. These recruitment programs should be lead by a myriad of individuals who not only equip these young men to be educators but also equip them to be well rounded individuals. School Districts should be connected to these programs providing information about their individual hiring requirements and offering internships for the young men in the programs. This would look something like the internships that Shell Oil and other major corporations hosts annually,” Campbell said.

And Tell says recruiters can start by changing the mindset about teachers.

“We still have a stereotype about teaching, especially Black males because we have this macho façade. I think if you can pump up the need for role models. Get away from ‘you’re in a classroom making lesson plans,’ and focus on ‘you get to bond with children and be a father figure.’ Pay more attention on the mentoring aspect and you’d reach more Black males,” he said.

Getting more Black male teachers in the classroom, Duncan adds, is a win-win for everyone.

“When we get more Black male teachers, all of our students benefit, white, Blacks, Hispanics, but particularly young Black male. They gravitate to them, find them before school, looking for a connection. When young people don’t have that positive mentor, there’s always a guy on the street corner that says ‘come my way I’ll take care of you.’”

Thousands March for Justice in D.C., Detroit, New Orleans

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By Hazel Trice Edney, NNPA Editor-in-Chief –

WASHINGTON (NNPA) - A red, black and green flag flapping in the sweltering Saturday afternoon breeze said it all in the one word embroidered on its front - “Justice.” That one word encompassed the sentiments of the throng of thousands who weaved for miles through the streets of Washington, D.C. behind civil rights leaders, chanting, singing and shouting demands from the powers that be.

“What do we want? … Justice! … When do we want it? … Now!”

This was the clarion call that went out from Rev. Al Sharpton’s “Reclaim the Dream” rally and march, adding fuel to an obvious rekindling of a movement to refocus attention back on the plight of the historically oppressed – largely Black people in America – and the disparities that are clear.

“You may remember that my father, in 1967 and early ‘68 was focused on economic empowerment, bringing together poor Blacks and poor Whites, and poor Native Americans and poor Americans from all walks of life. He did not live to see that come to fruition,” said Martin Luther King III after the march reached the MLK Memorial construction site. “But, today, 47 years since the marh on Washington, we are here talking about economic empowerment for all. And so, I hope that we understand as we observe in love that this is not about a left side or a right side. This is about God’s side in terms of doing that which is good, just and right for all of America. Not for a Republican or a Democrat or an independent, but for every American. That’s what Martin Luther King Jr.’s dream was about.”

King III made that point with clarity as the “Reclaim the Dream” march was named as such because of a rally on the same day, led by Fox News host Glenn Beck, leader of the conservative Tea Party movement, which is widely known for its anti-Obama and perceptually anti-Black perspective. Tea Partiers were accused of hurling racial epithets at members of Congress as they crossed the street to the Capitol to cast their health care votes in March.

Little more than a mile from the majority Black “Reclaim the Dream” crowd, the Beck crowd stood on the Washington Mall in a “Restoring Honor” rally that drew a near-solidly White crowd to the same spot – the Lincoln Memorial – Where Dr. King gave his famous “I Have a Dream” speech. Beck had said the date of his rally was a coincidence, but many saw it as disrespectful to the legacy of the civil rights leader.

“Well, they may have the mall, but we have the message. They may have the platform, but we have the dream,” said Sharpton at Dunbar high school where thousands gathered to prepare for the trek. “If you understood dreaming, you can dream anywhere. We don’t have to be at the spot. All we need to be is who we are. We can dream from jail cells. We can dream from hospital beds. We can dream wherever we are!”

Saturday’s march to the King Memorial, another in Detroit with the Rev. Jesse Jackson and yet another on Sunday in the lower 9th Ward in New Orleans, underscored Sharpton’s point that people around the nation – wherever they are – are daring to mobilize. Many are preparing to vote in mid-term elections Nov. 2. Others are simply feeling the need to do something as they come to the realization that racial disparities in just about every category are nearly as outrageous as they were 40 years ago.

Yet a “One Nation” march on Washington, led by the NAACP and some 200 other organizations around the nation will be held Oct. 2, illustrating the passion of this moment in history. “We need you back here on 10-2-10,” shouted Jealous to the crowd, citing the aim to “put our country back to work and pull our country back together!”

Other speakers included Secretary of Education Arne Duncan, Melanie Campbell of the National Coalition for Black Civil Participation, Marc Morial of the National Urban League and radio talk show hosts Tom Joyner and Joe Madison, who emceed the rally at Dunbar.

Despite the focus on key issues of disparity, an overriding focus was the perceived insult by the Beck crowd whose philosophy led the anti-civil rights movement in the 60s.

Sharpton concluded, “While they are down there, they ought to have Abe Lincoln to tell them why he fought against state’s rights and held the union together. They ought to read Dr. King’s speech. And then they need to talk to some of us who came up the rough side of the mountain. That’s why we’re marching. Somebody said there’s no trouble today. Ain’t no trouble. We wouldn’t disgrace today by allowing you to provoke us. No matter what you say, no matter what you do, we’re going to celebrate those who laid down their lives to give us a chance.”

Black Muslims Left Out of National Conversation on Islam

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By Stephon Johnson and Orobosa Igbinedio, Special to the NNPA from the Amsterdam News –

(NNPA) - “We have to be able to decode what’s happening and realize that this is religious intolerance on one hand, and it’s [also] good ol’ red-blooded American racial and ethnic bias on the other hand,” said Imam Al-Hajj Talib Abdur-Rashid, sitting in his office at the Mosque of Islamic Brotherhood Inc. in Harlem.

A controversial nationwide conversation has sparked following the proposal of a Muslim-themed community center two blocks away from Ground Zero. Those in opposition harbor the national pain of the aftermath of the terrorist attacks on Sept. 11 nine years ago and feel it is insulting and insensitive to the memory of the near 3,000 people who lost their lives. On the other hand, religious freedom is decreed in the Constitution, therefore, developers of the center at Park 51 have a legal status to build wherever they please.

This conversation has brought protestors from both sides to the street to express their views. It has brought about political lobbying and campaign strategies in order to stir the emotions of those both in opposition and in favor.

Meanwhile, a Time magazine poll published August 19 shows that 25 percent of people in the United States believe that President Barack Obama is a Muslim and only 26 percent of people are in support of the construction of this Muslim community center.

Many in the mainstream media have failed to acknowledge that the proposed building will not simply serve as a mosque but as a fully equipped community center with a swimming pool, culinary school, art studios and other features.

Furthermore, another mosque, the Manhattan Mosque, stands only five blocks northeast from the site of Ground Zero; Muslims have been worshipping at this location since a year prior to the World Trade Center’s construction.

In the Pentagon, which was also subject to a terrorist attack on Sept. 11, there is a non-denominational center where Muslims are able to pray throughout the week and hold services on Fridays.

But despite the protests and the vitriol directed at the proposed mosque (and Islam in general), Abdur-Rashid sees something missing when it comes to the national conversation: Black Muslims.

“The first thing we need to do is decode some of the language,” said Abdur-Rashid. “The first language that has to be decoded is “Americans.” That really means “white Americans.” That’s who’s uptight about this. It’s opposition that’s occurring in different parts of the country in reaction to the construction of mosques. It’s not just Park 51 in Lower Manhattan. It’s in Milwaukee. It’s in California. It’s in different parts of the country.”

But Abdur-Rashid also detects something more than a religious angle to the protests. “The opposition that is coming from certain segments of the White American community is not just tied to the building of mosques. There’s a race angle, an ethnicity angle as well as a religious angle,” he said. “Ethnicity wise, it’s not just Arabs. It’s Arabs and southern Asians. Southern Asian immigrants, according to all of the studies done over the past 15 to 20 years, are the largest group of Muslims in the United States. Then African-Americans are second and Arabs are third.

According to a study done by the Pew Research Center in 2009, concerning the population of Muslims in different countries, there are just over 2.45 million Muslims in America (0.8 percent of the population). When broken down to ethnicity, a Pew study conducted in 2007 states that 35 percent of all American Muslims were born here. Of that 35 percent, 20 percent are African-American. So why aren’t Blacks included in the national conversation on Islam? The answer, according to Abdur-Rashid, is two-fold.

“The way that this whole issue is playing out is the result of what I call a failed strategy on the part of Arab and southern Asian Muslims to be accepted into American society or assimilated into American society and a successful strategy on the part of the status quo [and] ruling class on the other hand.” Abdur-Rashid believes that the failed strategy of Arab and southern Asian Muslims was in not promoting a dialogue with Black Muslims once they arrived in America, especially after the Civil Rights Act of 1965 and the Immigration Act of 1965.

“An important part of their assimilation strategy has been to put an immigrant face on Islam in America,” said Abdur-Rashid. “Many of the immigrants who have come here have been financially well off. This has enabled them to found influential national organizations as they pursue a strategy of empowerment. All immigrants want to be empowered; all immigrants want to be part of American society. They’ve worked to put an immigrant face on Islam in America.

“As these immigrants have come here, two things have happened. One is that their goal has been to assimilate into White America, since we all know there are two Americas. And the America that these southern Asian and Arab immigrants have strived to assimilate to is not the America you and I are sitting in right now,” said Abdur-Rashid. “In doing this, the fact is that they came to this country and, for the most part, ignored the presence of African-American Muslims. [They] made no attempt to link with us, work with us, dialogue with us.

“Up until the past couple of decades, when you said Islam and Muslims in America, people have always thought about African-Americans. All of the famous Muslims in America up until this decade have been African-Americans who have had a tremendous impact on American society. Malcolm X, Muhammad Ali, Kareem-Abdul Jabbar. The list goes on.

“It’s failed not because these same Muslims had ill intent towards African-Americans; it was because they didn’t know the territory,” Abdur-Rashid continued. “They underestimated the underbelly of American society and the role that racism toward people of color has always played in American society. After Sept. 11, their artificial white privilege was revoked and they just became another kind of nigger in America. And the status quo started treating them like that.”

The vitriol aimed at Muslims in the United States unearths the height of “Islamophobia” and ignorance of a nation that prides itself on being cosmopolitan. So far, government officials such as New York State Gov. David Paterson have explained that there have not been any discussions about relocating the center to state-owned land as a compromise, as that would impinge on religious freedom and the legal rights of the developers. Relocating would indeed encourage further controversy and promote the very ideals that America aims to abort.

And according to Russell Simmons, that would also be cowardly.

“I’m disappointed in everyone, Harry Reid and the rest of the Democrats,” said Simmons. “I’m shocked at the media. There’s ignorance on all sides. Twenty-three percent of this world’s population is Muslim. They’re a peace-loving people. What we’re doing is creating more tension.”

Simmons, a hip-hop and business entrepreneur who’s also the chairman of the Foundation for Ethnic Understanding, spoke to the AmNews and stated the need for those who have been victims of intolerance to stand up and defend the community center’s construction—unless they side with the opposition as well.

“I think the Blacks, the Jews and others who don’t stand up who have had similar experiences…shame on them,” said Simmons. “And to let someone have this misguided anger? We wouldn’t let people act that way unless it was in our hearts as well.

He concludes, ”“Muslims did not attack the World Trade [Center] ... I’m sorry that there are so many in America who feel the way they do.”

Fortune 500 Lacking Women, Minorities, According to New Study

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Special to the NNPA from the Louisiana Weekly –

WASHINGTON — U.S. Senator Robert Menendez (D-NJ), Chair man of the Senate Democratic Task Force and the lone Hispanic Senator, today unveiled the results of his survey on women and minority representation among the senior management of Fortune 500 companies, as well as their use of minority and women-owned businesses in the contracting and procurement process.

The survey found that women and minority representation on corporate boards continues to lag far behind the national population percentages. Menendez’s survey was one of the most successful of its kind, garnering input from 219 corporations on the Fortune 500 list and 71 on the Fortune 100 list.

The study found minorities to represent a total of 14.5 percent of directors on corporate boards and overall have less representation on executive teams than they do on corporate boards.

Hispanics are least proportionately represented on boards and fared even worse on executive teams. They comprise 3.28 percent of board members and and 2.90 percent on executive teams, about one-fifth of the 15 percent they represent in the U.S. population. Among minority groups, African-Americans have the highest representation on boards compared to their population, but saw greatest decline in representation from boards to executive management teams, from 8.77 percent to 4.23 percent. Women on the other hand fared better on executive teams than on corporate boards, with 18.04 percent and 19.87 percent of representation respectively, but these figures still represent less than one-half of their proportion of the national population.

Senator Menendez and others also offered concrete recommendations, including the creation of a task force with select corporations, executive search firms, board members, and other experts to help companies move in this direction.

“As Chair of the Senate Democratic Hispanic Task Force, one of my top priorities has always been promoting and expanding diversity at all levels of our economic, political and social sectors, and the basic understanding that has resulted from this survey will help guide us in doing so,” said Senator Menendez. “This report clearly confirms what we had suspected all along – that American corporations need to do better when it comes to having the board rooms on Wall Street reflect the reality on Main Street. We need to change the dynamic and make it commonplace for minorities to be part of the American corporate structure. It is not just about doing what’s right, but it’s a good business decision that will benefit both corporations and the communities they’re tapping into and making investments in. That’s why I’m offering my recommendations and to work one-on-one with companies who want to move those numbers and company executives who want to make a difference in the community.”

This survey is one of the largest studies of women and minority diversity among corporate leadership with one of the highest response rates. A total of 219 Fortune 500 companies participated, including 71 Fortune 100 companies, making this one of the largest surveys on women and minority representation in corporate leadership ever. It requested the following information from corporations: 1) whether or not they have written diversity plans with targets, 2) data on diversity at the Board and executive management level, and 3) information on supplier diversity.

Most important findings of the survey and recommendations based on this data:

Diversity on Corporate Boards

• Women represent 18.04 percent of directors; 1 out of every 5 board members is female. The proportional representation of women on Boards is less than one-half of their proportion to the overall U.S. population.

• Minorities represent 14.45 percent of Directors; 1 out of every 7 Board members is a minority. Minorities represent less than half of the 35 percent of the population they comprise overall in this country.

• Blacks/African-Americans have the highest representation at 8.77 percent compared to their population, reporting a Board ratio of about 69 percent.

• Hispanics have one of the poorest representations on Boards. They comprise about 3.28 percent of Board members, one-fifth of the 15 percent they represent in the U.S. population. Native-Americans made up about .04 percent of Board members, approximately 5 percent of their actual population.

Diversity on Executive Teams (CEO and direct reports)

• Women represent 19.87 percent of Directors; 1 out of every 5 Board members is female. Although women fared slightly better on executive teams than on corporate Boards, they still represent less than one-half of their population.

• Minorities overall have less representation on executive teams than they do on corporate Boards, representing 10.44 percent of executive managers, compared to 30 percent of their actual proportion to the U.S. population.

• Blacks/African-Americans saw the greatest decline in representation from Boards to executive management teams, 8.77 percent to 4.23 percent. In fact, they went from about one out of every 11 Board members to one out of every 24 executive team members. When compared to population statistics, Blacks/African Americans on executive boards represented only about one-third of their U.S. population.

• Hispanics/Latinos fare worse on executive teams versus corporate Boards at 2.90 percent, Asians and Native-Americans do slightly better at 2.55 percent and .25 percent respectively.

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BVN National News Wire