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Black Females Lack Leadership Opportunities

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By Jazelle Hunt
NNPA Washington Correspondent

WASHINGTON (NNPA) – While Black girls possess high levels of leadership qualities, they receive the least opportunity to fill these roles throughout their lives, a new report finds.

The study, titled, “Unlocking Opportunity for African American Girls: A Call to Educational Equity,” was co-authored by the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, and the National Women’s Law Center (NWLC). It examines barriers to educational success for Black girls, and also takes a brief look at leadership access.

This dearth of girls and women in charge is known as the leadership gap – and for women of color, the gap is a chasm.

Despite having the highest workforce participation rates of all women, Black women hold just 5.3 percent of all managerial and professional positions. In business, Black women occupy only 2 percent of board seats among Fortune 500 companies. In government, there is only one Black woman mayor among the nation’s 100 largest cities, no Black women serving as governor, and only 14 Black women in the House of Representatives. In U.S. history, there has only been one Black woman senator: Carol Moseley Braun (D-Il.), who served from 1993 to 1999.

Pointing to a 2013 Girl Scout survey, the report interestingly finds that Black girls are more likely than Latina and White girls to want to lead; to already consider themselves leaders; to already have had leadership experiences; and to rate themselves highly on “leadership skills.”

“African American girls have higher rates of positive self-esteem, even when confronted with harmful stereotypes,” says Fatima Goss Graves, NWLC vice president for Education and Employment, and co-author of the report. “You have this desire to be a leader and this sense that you are a leader, but when we compare that to reports that show only 12 percent of girls overall participate in student council or student government…there’s a bit of a disconnect there.”

For Black girls, all that leadership potential is threatened as racial and gender stereotypes, discipline practices, and poorly resourced schools collide. According to the report, the assertive qualities many Black girls possess – which make for good leaders – are often perceived as defiance and disruption coming from them; this brings harsher discipline and negative school experiences.

The report also points out that Black girls are rarely steered toward activities and opportunities to be leaders. With sports, for example, Black girls at well-funded schools have similar rates of athletic participation as other girls; but at poorer schools, where Black girls are more likely to be enrolled, their participation rates are lower.

“When differences in schools attended were taken into account, Black and Hispanic adolescent males had higher levels of physical activity than their White peers at the same schools, making it ‘clear that the influence of schools (particularly in prioritizing which sports and activities to fund) affects the genders differentially,’” the report states.

Black girls who play sports are 27 percent more likely to graduate from college than their peers. One piece of research cited found that more than 80 percent of executive businesswomen were athletes in their youth.

“When I saw the data I said, okay, the internal tools are there,” Graves says. “So if [Black girls] have support – from educators, from community members, from family – to show leadership, to be engaged in the sorts of activities that foster leadership, then you’ll have everything connected up.”

Teacher attitudes are a large factor in the gap between Black girls’ potential and Black women’s realities.

“The intersection of racial and gender stereotypes has a significant impact on discipline rates for African American girls, likely due in part to bias in the exercise of discretion by teachers and administrators,” the report reads. “Ultimately, educators’ perceptions of African American young women…undermine[s] their potential for success.”

The National Education Association (NEA), the nation’s largest union representing public education professionals, has set out to close the leadership gap for all girls.

Last week they released a report based on a survey of nearly 1,000 NEA members. Researchers found that teachers generally hold an “egalitarian” view of leadership and the skills and character it requires. They also see that gender affects their students’ pursuit of leadership roles, with girls tending to seek leadership in English and language spheres (if at all), and boys tending to seek opportunities in sports, STEM, and student government.

The report also uncovered subtle gender bias among these same educators, who were unaware the survey was about gender until the end of it.

“[The finding] suggests that even well-meaning, highly skilled, and deeply committed educators may hold and act on gender stereotypes,” the NEA findings read. “Research shows that even individuals who may express gender-egalitarian beliefs can still hold stereotypical beliefs at an unconscious level, and those unconscious beliefs may influence our behavior more than our explicitly held beliefs simply because we are unaware of them.”

Both reports cite similar recommendations to educators for closing the leadership gap, namely: professional development and training to address teacher bias and attitudes; and increasing girls’ access to extracurricular and opportunities to lead. The NEA’s report also recommends highlighting the achievements and contributions of women throughout the curriculum.

Graves adds that schools will also need to address underlying inequities before the gap can be closed.

“A lot of our research revealed troubling things that are happening in schools, things like excessive discipline, inappropriate responses that were affecting student learning time, things like unaddressed harassment and treatment of young moms,” she says. “At the same time as schools are thinking and focusing on fostering opportunity and fostering leadership with an eye toward girls of color – which I think is fantastic – they have to be looking at ensuring that they’re addressing some of the negative factors going on as well.”

Black Men Show Job Gain

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By Freddie Allen
NNPA Senior Washington Correspondent

WASHINGTON (NNPA) – The unemployment rate for Blacks fell from 11.4 percent to 11 percent and the labor force participation increased from 61 percent in August to 61.7 percent in September, largely because of short-term gains made by Black men, according to the latest jobs report from the Labor Department.

Even though the unemployment rate for Black men over 20 years old increased from 10.8 percent to 11 percent last month, the share of Black men that were employed or looking for work (labor force participation rate) also increased from 67.3 percent in August to 68.5 percent in September. The only worker group that saw its labor force participation rate increase last month was Black men. Economists often say that people return to the workforce, as they grow more optimistic about their job prospects.

Although the unemployment rate for White men over 20 years old fell from 4.8 in August to 4.4 percent in September, the labor force rate for that worker group also ticked down from 72.2 percent in August to 71.9 percent last month.

The jobless rate for Black women over 20 years old plummeted a full percentage point from 10.6 percent in August to 9.6 percent in September. The unemployment rate for White women remained flat at 4.8 percent. There were slightly less Black and White women employed or looking for work in September than the previous month.

The national unemployment rate hit a six-year low last month, falling from 6.1 percent in August to 5.9 percent in September and more than 200,000 jobs were added to the economy.

As some economists cheered September’s jobs numbers, in a blog post on the Economic Policy Institute’s website, Elise Gould, a senior economist and director of health and policy research at EPI, pointed out that the national labor force participation rate was 62.7 percent, the lowest participation rate recorded since February 1978.

“And, the biggest drop in labor force participation was among prime-age workers, 25-54 years old,” said Gould.

In a separate blog post, Gould said that public sector employment gained 12,000 jobs, most of it coming in local government education (6,700). Any increases in K-12 education jobs greatly benefits White women who hold the lion’s share of teaching positions at that level.

The economy added 236,000 jobs in September and revisions to Labor Department numbers in July and August accounted for an additional 69,000 jobs.

During a speech at a steel plant in Princeton, Ind., President Barack Obama praised the slowly improving economy while noting that, “too many families still work too many hours with too little to show for it.”

President Obama said that increasing the minimum wage is one of the best ways to grow jobs and wages in America.

“It’s time to stop punishing some of the hardest-working Americans.  It’s time to raise the minimum wage.  It would put more money in workers’ pockets.  It would help 28 million Americans. Recent surveys show that a majority of small business owners support a gradual increase to $10.10 an hour,” said President Obama. “The folks who keep blocking a minimum wage increase are running out of excuses.”

Raising the minimum wage would disproportionately benefit Blacks, who hold low-wage jobs at higher rates than their total share of the workforce.

As Blacks continue to struggle with double-digit unemployment, some economists believe that Blacks are being left behind during the economic recovery.

“Rather than just reading about our recovery in a headline, more people will feel it in their own lives.  And that’s when America does best,” said President Obama. “ We do better when the middle class does better, and when more Americans have their way to climb into the middle class.”

Oil Barons Jump On New Finds In Africa, Ignoring Climate Justice Calls

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Special to the NNPA from the New York Amsterdam News

(GIN)—U.S. and U.K. oil explorers are making their moves on the Western Sahara, between Mauritania and Morocco, despite calls by thousands of climate justice activists worldwide to “keep the oil in the soil.”

Kosmos Energy, a U.S. oil and gas exploration firm, and Cairn Energy of the U.K., plan to use rights obtained in 2006 when Kosmos signed an agreement with Morocco’s state oil company. A drill ship is currently on its way from South Korea to begin the exploration.

The move outraged citizens of Western Sahara, a U.N. designated non-self-governing territory larger than the U.K. that was claimed by Morocco in 1975. A referendum on self-determination in Western Sahara has been on hold since 1991, when it was blocked by Morocco.

The Sahrawi Center for Media and Communication, an activist group of indigenous Sahrawi citizens of Western Sahara, in a letter to Kosmos’ senior VP William Hayes, condemned the drilling plans, calling them “illegal” for failing to obtain the consent of Western Saharans, “without them being consulted and benefiting from these business operations.”

Kosmos defended its actions by arguing that although it does not have the authorization of the Sahrawi, its activities will be beneficial to them.

“We believe that, if exploration is successful, responsible resource development in Western Sahara has the potential to create significant, long-term social and economic benefits for the people of the territory,” Kosmos wrote in a statement on the issue in February.

Meanwhile, U.K. oil barons Tullow and partners have discovered oil in the Turkana District of Kenya and on the coast. The World Bank has committed $50 million to the Kenyan government to provide technical assistance. By the company’s own admission, its fields cover one of the world’s most environmentally and culturally sensitive regions, where local employment among impoverished and isolated communities is a critical issue.

Last year, Tullow employed 100 permanent staff in Kenya, of which 70 percent were Kenyan nationals, but the company claimed to be employing more than 1,000. Most were subcontractors who receive less pay and less job security than full-time staff.

With basic literacy among the Turkana people at 7.2 percent, the majority of people in the district are excluded from training programs and from the few direct employment opportunities offered by oil drilling, according to Ikal Ang’elei, director of Friends of Lake Turkana, a local environmental organization.

As a result, the local people have largely been offered unskilled jobs, such as guards, sand mixers and cooks. Other opportunities, including transportation contracts, were snatched up by wealthy businessmen with the financial capital and political connections to supply vehicles for use.

At a conference this year of Oilwatch Africa, opponents of drilling urged African countries “to gradually phase out dependence on fossil fuels by exploring and adopting alternative renewable energy sources.”

Haiti: The Richest Country in the Western Hemisphere

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By Patrick Delices
Special to the NNPA from the New York Amsterdam News

For decades, and up to this point, Haiti has had the inauspicious distinction of being labeled the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere despite its rich resources, along with its rich historical and cultural legacy. This lamentable economic reality in Haiti has overshadowed its richness, beauty and historical essence, along with the humility and humanity of its people. Haiti, the land of many beautiful mountains and people, is known for its extreme poverty and crime, not its rich cultural history and resources.

Haiti was once known as the “Pearl of the Antilles” because of its richness and natural beauty. Unfortunately, Haiti is now known for its earthquake, cholera outbreak, kidnapping, crime and, of course, poverty. However, during the colonial era, the wealth of Haiti surpassed that of all the British colonies in the Caribbean. Moreover, it was Haiti that augmented considerably the size, wealth and power of the United States by way of the Haitian Revolution, as evident in the Louisiana Purchase.

Despite its richness, Haiti has been plagued by extreme poverty and crime because of slavery, colonialism, imperialism, brutal dictators and puppet governmental leaders. According to the World Bank, “Haiti remains the poorest country in the Americas and one of the poorest in the world (with a GNI per capita of $760 in 2012), with significant needs in basic services. Over half of its population of 10 million lives on less than $1 per day, and approximately 80 percent live on less than $2 per day.”

Moreover, the United States, the wealthiest nation in the world, ranks Haiti as “critical” in terms of crime and violence without taking into consideration that in terms of crimes and violence against humanity, no nation has surpassed the United States. Unscrupulously ridiculed for its poverty and crime, unlike the United States and Europe, Haiti is indeed the richest country in the Western Hemisphere, as evident in its most lucrative resource: its people.

I recently returned to the United States from a pilgrimage in Haiti with professor James Small of the World African Diaspora Union. In association with professor Bayyinah Bello and her organization, Fondasyon Felicitee, we were in Haiti to celebrate the 256th birthday of Napoleon’s master, Gen. Jean Jacques Dessalines, aka “Emperor Jacques I.” Born Sept. 20, 1758, Dessalines is considered the founding father of Haiti.

In our pilgrimage and celebration, we visited numerous historical and cultural sites in Haiti. For example, we visited Bois Caiman in Le Cap, where, Aug. 14, 1791, the Haitian Revolution was reignited by Boukman Dutty and Cecile Fatiman.

We also visited the area in Nord, Haiti, where the final battle of the Haitian Revolution, the Battle of Vertieres, took place Nov. 18, 1803. In this final battle, Napoleon yielded to his new master, Dessalines, and abandoned his quest for an empire in the New World, thus selling the Louisiana territory, which was about 529 million acres, for a song—approximately four cents an acre.

Furthermore, we visited the homes of Dessalines and his wife, Empress Marie-Claire Heureuse Felicite Bonheur. Lastly, we visited Sans-Souci and the Citadel, which were built, remarkably, during a time when Haiti stood alone as the only Black sovereign nation in the Americas in face of the constant threat of slavery, colonialism and global white supremacy. Sans-Souci, named after the West African-born Haitian Revolutionary leader Colonel Jean-Baptiste Sans-Souci, was the royal palace of King Henri I and Queen Marie Louise Coidavid of Haiti. A wonder of the world, the Citadel is the largest fortress in the Western Hemisphere. It was first conceived by Dessalines and completed by Henri Christophe, King Henri I of Haiti, who, at a very young age, participated in the American Revolution.

Demonstrators 'Disrupt' St. Louis Symphony Singing a 'Requiem for Mike Brown'

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By Rebecca Rivas
Special to the NNPA from the St. Louis American

Just after intermission, about 50 people disrupted the St. Louis Symphony’s performance of Brahms Requiem on Saturday night, singing “Justice for Mike Brown.”

As symphony conductor Markus Stenz stepped to the podium to begin the second act of German Requiem, one middle-aged African-American man stood up in the middle of the theater and sang, “What side are you on friend, what side are you on?”

In an operatic voice, another woman located a few rows away stood up and joined him singing, “Justice for Mike Brown is justice for us all.” Several more audience members sprinkled throughout the theater and in the balcony rose up and joined in the singing.

Those in the balcony lowered white banners about 15 feet long with black spray-painted letters that said, “ Requiem for Mike Brown 1996-2014” and “Racism lives here,” with an arrow pointed to a picture of the St. Louis Arch. Another banner said, “Rise up and join the movement.”

Stenz stood stoically and listened to the demonstrators’ performance. Some onlookers were outraged and start spewing expletives. Others stood up and started clapping. Most seemed stunned and simply watched.

The singing only went on for about two minutes before the demonstrators started chanting, “Black lives matter.” They pulled up their banners and dropped red paper hearts over the edge of the balcony onto the main floor orchestra seats, which stated “Requiem for Mike Brown.” Then they all voluntarily marched out together and left the theater. While they marched out, they received a round of applause from many of the audience members – as well as the musicians on stage.

Outside, symphony administrators huddled together discussing the demonstration, expressing dismay. When asked if they wanted to comment, they said no. The demonstrators had purchased tickets to the concert.

The St. Louis American tracked down and interviewed the organizer of the event – Sarah Griesbach, 42, a white woman who lives in the Central West End. She said that the death of Michael Brown, an unarmed teen who was shot and killed by a police officer in Ferguson, has opened her eyes to the inequalities that exist in St. Louis. She has been protesting since Brown was shot on Aug. 9.

“It is my duty and desire to try to reach out and raise that awareness peacefully but also to disrupt the blind state of white St. Louis, particularly among the people who are secure in their blindness,” Griesbach said.

Two weeks ago, she and another “middle-aged woman who wear our mom jeans pulled up way too high” held up a sign at a Cardinals game that said, “Racism lives here.” A pivotal moment for her was when people around them started chanting in response, “Hands up, don’t loot.”

She and her fellow protester Elizabeth Vega decided to try again at the symphony, which received a much warmer response. She believes that is because the audience was fairly diverse in ethnicity and age.

“There is an inclusivity that comes with that intellectual culture,” she said.

The group of demonstrators was also a mix of African Americans, Latino and white residents – from college kids to college professors, she said. There were “representatives” from Clayton, Webster Groves, South St. Louis, Central West End and Ferguson. Although she lives in the Central West End, her children attend school in Clayton. As a mother, she has been deeply affected by Brown’s death.

“This cannot be just a Ferguson issue,” she said.

The St. Louis American got in touch with Erika Ebsworth-Goold, publicist for the St. Louis Symphony, on Sunday afternoon. She said the musical piece that the demonstrators chose was appropriate because it is meant to “lift up the people who were left in time of tragedy.”

She did not feel the group interrupted the performance but “delayed” it, she said.

“The people audience had respect for what we were do at the symphony, and we are appreciative of that,” she said.

Organizer Elizabeth Vega said the group prefers to call it a “disruption,” rather than a delay.

“Many of us are artists ourselves, so we were very cognizant to not interrupt the performance after it had already began,” Vega said. “But we still wanted it to be a disruption that left people with a seed of thought.”

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BVN National News Wire