Uganda's opposition complained of intimidation and interference by the army. The security forces turned out in large numbers near polling stations, with police expressing concern that there might be an attempt to disrupt the vote.
President Yoweri Museveni, a former guerrilla general who seized power 20 years ago, faced a challenge from his former personal physician, Kizza Besigye, in the first polls since the country's "no-party" system was scrapped last year.
Sam Akaki, chief spokesperson for the opposition Forum for Democratic Change, said: "Reports are coming in of massive army deployments in every constituency. Tens of thousands of names have disappeared from the register. Ballot papers are arriving late or not at all.
Museveni campaigned on his economic record: the economy has grown by 6% a year for the past 10 years. But Uganda remains heavily dependent on agriculture, and a third of the population lives on less than a dollar a day.
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