When ancient Greeks plagariazed the thousands of years old concepts of Logic from Africa, despite such methods as Inductive Reasoning having been wide-spread in Africa, the Western world falsely claimed Sir Francis Bacon (1561-1626) “discovered” it. They compounded their dishonorableness by introducing an explosion of processes which have caused tremendous ongoing confusion in pursuits of the Truth--effects seen to this day. To make matters worse, they refused to be self-critical and thus engaged in self-righteous hypocrisy. For the ancient Greeks, and subsequently for the Western world, Logic designates a specific branch of philosophy dealing with the study of principles of reasoning. Following the pattern of African Logic, Greek Logic consisted of putting statements together correctly so as to arrive at new statements. Those new deductions could then be the basis for making other deductions on the way to establishing a logical train of thought for the opening up of important new information. However, a major flaw in ancient Greek logic occurred. Their tremendous modifications, based upon a material system of values, included dismissal of the Spiritual aspects permeating African Thought. Thus, their figuring out of complex problems was like fitting a square peg into a round hole, necessitating overlooking misfit areas.
A modification of African Deductive reasoning into systematized rules applicable to European Logic featured the "Premise"--a statement accepted as a basis for further reasoning but it may be true, distorted, or fantasy. Another was their primary concern with the correctness of the pattern of thought by analysis rather than from the Spiritual perspective of African Tradition's emphasis on the Truth of thought by means of Synthesis. Then their analytical process, though correct, was on the wrong track. It proceeded from the examination of the facts in order to discover the general principles underlying individual happenings so they can be applied to making inferences from a specific thing to something universal—from the known in the earth world to the unknown in realms above the earth world. By contrast, African Logic, also called African Dialectic, reasons only from Truth or Circumstantial Truths--i.e. the Spiritual Elements. The Greeks' main purpose for arriving at inferences was to reveal “Esoteric Knowledge”—i.e. understanding the inner truth lying hidden within the core of fundamental beliefs about foundational Realities for application in all aspects of the Cosmos. In assessing the logic of this process, what results is People's Information may be correct but not on the Truth-Track--typical of European Logic. Still, each type--regardless of how close to the truth or far away--can have a deep and long lasting impact. Regarding God, Idols, Sin, and Theology some people have Certainty concepts derived from Circumstantial Spiritual Truths; some, false certainty from opinions, beliefs, or incomplete truth; and some are deliberately deceitful in presenting Supernatural SEEMS right opinions and beliefs as certainty. Since most people do not know that issue's essence--the "What it is"--the problem of falseness centers on confusing dealings with only what the issue does or how it appears.
In contrast to the Sophists, Socrates (teacher of Plato) hammered out his principles with his own unaided reason and lived by them without regard to the consequences--the African Tradition way. He borrowed the concept of Dialectic (reasoning about opinions through questioning) from Africans to arrive at what Europeans call the Socratic Method: (1) definition of key terms; (2) the statement of propositions or definitive declarative statements about the subject; (3) the identification of possible contradictions; and (4) the application of ideas. This method is based on the use of Antithesis--the pairing of contradictions to display the necessity of choice between them. He taught that the human mind can be satisfied by nothing less than unchanging, objective truth. Permanent truth was to be found only in general statements: particular things change, but species do not change. "Particular" describes the members of a class or type. "Universal" (Forms or Ideas) describes that class or type to which particulars belong. Thus, my dog Titan is a particular of the universal 'dog.' He said that if one cannot make general statements really founded in the facts of Reality, one could not reason at all. One is to examine the Particulars in their various instances to discover properties and relations enabling one to make valid statements about them.
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