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Ancient Greek Sophists' Philosophy

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Sophists ('wisdom-bearer') of C5 BC were self-declared wise-men who were unscrupulous distorters of facts. Following the Persian Wars, they travelled about Greece as purveyors of popular education. For pay, they taught "practical wisdom" deemed to be essential--how to 'get along' in the world and without certain knowledge; how to win disputes; how to speak well and convincingly in statesmanship by using grammar, rhetoric, literature; and the generalship of doing whatever promised to offer worldly success by tricking victims. They were identified with the households of the well-to-do and the powerful, specializing in the arts of eloquence and persuasion as a preparation for careers in the law courts and on the public platform. Their almost sole interest was on pleasure, pain, and the pathe (states of emotions) and, as a consequence, neglected argument and proof. Their underlying theory developed from two foundational Sophists' concepts. First was the Italian Sophist Gorgias (c483-375) who was indifferent to both the sufferings and the happiness of other people. He proclaimed: "Nothing exists, and if it did, no one could know it; and if they knew it, they could not communicate it." Second, Pythagoras (a Sophist), upon his return from studying 23 years in Africa said: "Man is the measure of all things--of things that are that they are, and of things that are not that they are not." He advised everyone to "measure" matters according to his own nature and needs, since man alone, and not God (as he had learned in Africa), was the measure of all things. He also insisted on sensation as the only source of knowledge, with any sensation being true as long as it is perceived. Sophists agreed with him in despairing of the possibility of reaching truth and that the detached pursuit of absolute truth had been proved to be a wild-goose chase, saying knowledge in the strict sense was unattainable. Thus, man should not bother to seek what he can never find. Although these "SEEMS right" statements are obviously false to followers of the Ancient African Bible, the Sophists began dismantling the Spiritual Elements. This is how most Westerners think!

Obviously, since the mass of people live out of their "Dark Side," Pythagoras' teaching put the Western world on a destructive downhill course. This course carries people further and further away from their Higher Selves and, by being disconnected from God, sanctions evilness to all concerned. To elaborate, apparently Magic in its widest sense was native to the imagination of the Greeks in their theogony (origin of gods) and mythology. This meant Pythagoras conceptualized each White male as being a god--a misinterpretation of what African Sages state is the way to earn ones Highest Self divinity. Nevertheless, this short-cut to becoming a man-god implied each White male could be extremely judgmental of all others except himself; determine what is right/wrong for him to do as well as what is right/wrong for others to do; and conclude that what he did was right and what anyone else did that was not in agreement was wrong. These were all based on opinions.

What Pythagoras and Gorgias' statements mean to Europeans continue to be debated. Group I: They did not mean to advocate the anarchy of an excessive individualism but to put forward the view that man is the greatest being of whom there is real knowledge. Therefore, standards of behavior cannot be found in some arbitrary, external code--but rather in the needs and desires that man is known to have. In other words, man's view of morals was relative, not absolute; that morality should adapt itself to the needs and customs of the time and contain no law rooted in the nature of things--and thus binding in all circumstances. In short, it was acceptable to say: "this moral principle is "out of date" or "hardly for people like us"--"we decide right!" Europeans interpret this as man, not God nor an unchanging moral law, is the ultimate source of value. Group II says it means no one really knows what is outside oneself--for each one, the appearance of things is different; what is true for one is not true for another and thus everyone is always right while no one can ever be wrong. Group III denies truth apart from ones private emotions about things--or if there is, it cannot be discovered. Since one answer is as good as another as far as right or wrong is concerned, man might just as well concentrate on a policy of self-interest according to his own opinion. These three are exhibited in today's White society and its Colored puppets.

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