In the first grade we students were given a package of clay, shaped like a hand and each "finger" being a different color. I liked to ball that "clay hand" up until all the colors blended into each other. The formal word for a ball of misinformation is a "Glob," meaning "sticky," true, distorted, or false items or topics are tangled into a round mess. A mess equates to confusion about the meaning, diagnosis, and/or solution. The result is frustration, wanting to "give up," and looking for direction from ignorant or evil people (who desire to control ones mind for self-interest benefits). Fundamental to untangling misinformation is to aim for Certainty about every detail in the Obvious, the Hidden, and the Base/Foundation of the topic at hand. The scope of ones success depends upon ones Knowledge filtering out and prioritizing all pertinent things knowable; all kinds of knowers; all modes of Knowledge; and all methods of Knowing. "Certain," an Umbrella Term, embraces all planes of existence and thus has different definitions for each way the word is used on a given plane. Complexity comes from various cultures' different meanings. But since African Sages originated Certainty parameters of God's manifestations, their definitions are its Denotations (a word's primary, specific sense meaning) while non-Africans give opinions about what is implied about African Denotations, called Connotations.
First, Ancient Africans said Spiritual Certainty is an absolute term referring to an essence state of Being of a "Thing"; is required for knowledge; has no degrees; is not subject to human opinions; and provides the "5Ss" (safety, security, self-confidence, strength, and stability). Second, African Spiritual/Secular Certainty (which embraces the Metaphysical and the Earth World) is observational knowledge of particular features of God's manifestations + inferring what must be true for there to be a Cosmic "Chain of Being" (the Law of Sympathy). Inferences determine the currently unknown from the already known by reasoning from circumstances and observations to draw conclusions from evidence or premises. The key to accurate Inference Certainty is its tandem aspect--i.e. the known must have existence--not merely in thought, but in fact--and then go beyond the known to propose something specific in the unknown capable of having existence as part of its unrealized reality. Third, African Secular Certainty, by being in Earth World Realms and orchestrated by the human mind means there is some room for it being intellectually maneuvered. In that process one or more viewings may indicate it does not 'ring true' in those particular circumstances. Still, they are sufficiently Certain to serve as Direct Evidence. Examples: Describable Axioms which possess observable aspects as, for instance, the shortest distance between two points is a straight line; two straight lines can cross only at one point. By contrast, Indescribable Axioms have effects assumed to be so obvious and universally accepted as to need no proof (e.g. the beauty of flowers).
Ancient Greeks defined "Certain" as 'to decide by discerning from passing through a sieve so as to separate and pick out.' Yet, by essentially disregarding the existence of God or God's manifestations and thus by-passing a "Thing's" essence nature of "What it is" explains why all subsequent definitions are hopelessly confusing. Instead, Europeans depend on Certitude--the firmness by which the mind adheres to the "Thing" (e.g. opinion and faith) with Conviction (i.e. subjective sufficiency) which authors confidence and assurance. Such is in keeping with Pythagoras' (Greek, 480-411 BC) teaching the Western world: “Man is the measure of all things”—and not God.
Examples include: Epistemological Certainty (whatever has the highest degree of credibility and yet further information might increase its degree of credibility); Logical Certainty (concerning mathematical probability); and Psychological Certainty (one is certain about something without a doubt about its truth).
|< Prev||Next >|